Mikrotik: update WiFi PSK with randomly generated password and send it in telegram

Recently I upgraded my home WiFi with mikrotik cAP ac, the main reason to do it was an intention to configure guest WiFi with transparent traffic routing via TOR. Since I have intention to share guest password freely, I needed a way to change it from time to time. Firstly I wanted to make a telegram bot which would change wifi password via api call, but later I learned that it may be done with ugly scripting language which device supports.
More than that it has HTTP client, so I can change password by schedule and send it in telegram.

Here is the pre-requisites:
First, you should register the new bot with help of BotFather and get bot token, it looks like 110201543:AAHdqTcvCH1vGWJxfSeofSAs0K5PALDsaw
Second, you need to get your chat id with bot. I got it by sending a message to newly registered bot and fetching an update with curl:

$ curl 'https://api.telegram.org/bot110201543:AAHdqTcvCH1vGWJxfSeofSAs0K5PALDsaw/getUpdates'|jq '.result[].message.chat.id'

(chat id looks like 76615696).

The next thing to do is to create some sort of function to send message to telegram, it may be created with CLI or in WebFig -> System -> Scripts. Name tg_send, policy: read, write, policy, test

:local BotToken "110201543:AAHdqTcvCH1vGWJxfSeofSAs0K5PALDsaw";
:local ChatID "76615696";
:local ParseMode "html";
:local DisableWebPagePreview True;
:local SendText $MessageText;
:local tgUrl "https://api.telegram.org/bot$BotToken/sendMessage?chat_id=$ChatID&text=$SendText&parse_mode=$ParseMode&disable_web_page_preview=$DisableWebPagePreview";
/tool fetch http-method=get url=$tgUrl keep-result=no;

It’s important to replace BotToken and ChatID with your own token and id.

Previous script allows to make notification when password changed, the next one do the trick. Name: change_guest_pw, policy: read, write, policy, test, password.

:local ProfileName guest
:local DeviceName [/system identity get name];
:local PW ([:pick ([/certificate scep-server otp generate minutes-valid=0 as-value]->"password") 0 10])
:interface wireless security-profiles set $ProfileName wpa2-pre-shared-key="$PW";
:local MessageText "\F0\9F\94\91 <b>$DeviceName:</b> new guest pw: <code>$PW</code>";
:local SendTelegramMessage [:parse [/system script get tg_send source]]; 
$SendTelegramMessage MessageText=$MessageText;

Here is important to replace ProfileName with your own security profile which is ‘guest‘ in my case.
After that change_guest_pw can be scheduled to be executed regularly.


One of the first thing which I noticed when I got the new access point was useless hardware button which just switched off all LEDs. It’s possible to use it as a trigger for script execution.
Cli commands:

/system routerboard mode-button
set enabled=yes on-event=change_guest_pw

make it change WiFI password as well or it may be configured in WebFig -> System -> RouterBoard -> Mode Button

How to just send logs from files to graylog2

That solution allows to read logs from file and just send them to remote syslog/graylog server. Logs will not influent on current syslog settings, you won’t need to filter them out of any syslog facility (like local7), all you need – the rsyslog (I’ve used v8).

My task was to send logs which wrote by java application (if I’m right log4j was used), they were rotated by logrotate with truncation, so few specific options were added.
I replaced %APP-NAME% in rsyslog’s template(RSYSLOG_SyslogProtocol23Format) to be able differentiate from which files log messages were read.

As for me, it’s better to write logs in format which allow them to be parsed easily or send them right to remote location , but if you need to do it quickly without modification of application it’s appropriate solution. Just copy config below in file like  /etc/rsyslog.d/99-graylog.conf and modify TARGET.ADDRESS, TARGET.PORT, app_ tag and File setting according to your environment.


name="SyslogProtocol23Format_modified" type="string"
string="<%PRI%>1 %TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag%%$.suffix% %PROCID% %MSGID% %STRUCTURED-DATA% %msg%\n"

ruleset(name="sendToLogserver") {
action(type="omfwd" Target="TARGET.ADDRESS" Port="TARGET.PORT" Template="SyslogProtocol23Format_modified")

ruleset(name="app_logs") {
set $.suffix=re_extract($!metadata!filename, "(.*)/([^/]*)", 0, 2, "unknown.log");
call sendToLogserver


In my case application wrote multi-line log messages, so startmsg.regex was used. Also logs were rotated by logrotate with truncate method, additional option reopenOnTruncate was used. So my input section looked like:

startmsg.regex="^[0-9]{4}-[0-9]{2}-[0-9]{2} "

How to block IP ranges of specified autonomous system

If you want to prohibit access to your host for specified AS, you can use solution below. I made it some time ago, when I found out, that mail.ru hunting for hosts which help to bypass telegram censorship. It’s not perfect because I didn’t make much effort to it. Whois can return sub-networks and networks to which they belong in same response, so ipset set can contain duplicated ranges. Change ‘AS47764’ to AS which you want to block, ‘input_drop’ is an ipset set name.

ipset create input_drop hash:net comment
for i in $(whois -h whois.radb.net -- '-i origin AS47764' | grep 'route:'|cut -d : -f 2)
ipset add input_drop $i comment mail.ru
iptables -A INPUT -m set --match-set input_drop src -m comment --comment "DROP INPUT packets for AS47764" -j DROP

Also, i would recommend that solution, to make ipset rules persistent: https://github.com/BroHui/systemd-ipset-service

Galaxy S3: /efs/prox_cal doesn’t affect calibration settings under LineageOS

Few days ago I replaced front glass on samsung i9300 and flashed LineageOS 14.1. After that I’ve found that proximity sensor stays in triggered state, it may happened because of lack of experience (I’ve used too much UV-glue, so it was everywhere) or because of additional screen protector which been installed. Anyway, always-triggered-proximity-sensor made phone partially usable (you can’t cancel any call without pushing power button few times). I’ve found a lot of articles how to calibrate proximity sensor like this one. More over I’ve found that I shouldn’t do any calculation to update /efs/prox_cal, after auto-calibration /efs/prox_cal updated automatically (at least with kernel that shipped by default), but anyway it didn’t help me. Every reboot calibration  was reseted to zero.

For a first time, I’ve used proximity threshold value to fix proximity sensor, but later I saw that kernel driver read calibration directly from file and SELinux could be a reason why /efs/prox_cal haven’t effect.

Part that read calibration value looks like that:

#define CANCELATION_FILE_PATH "/efs/prox_cal"
int proximity_open_calibration(struct ssp_data *data)
 int iRet = 0;
 mm_segment_t old_fs;
 struct file *cancel_filp = NULL;
old_fs = get_fs();
cancel_filp = filp_open(CANCELATION_FILE_PATH, O_RDONLY, 0666);
 if (IS_ERR(cancel_filp)) {
 iRet = PTR_ERR(cancel_filp);
 if (iRet != -ENOENT)
 pr_err("[SSP]: %s - Can't open cancelation file\n",
 goto exit;

I’ve checked logcat and here is it:

05-06 21:29:12.916 3219 3219 W Binder:2377_A: type=1400 audit(0.0:39): avc: denied { read } for name="prox_cal" dev=mmcblk0p3 ino=46 scontext=u:r:system_server:s0 tcontext=u:object_r:efs_device_file:s0 tclass=file permissive=0

Definitely SELinux forbid reading of calibration file, I was surprised that SElinux capable to forbid kernel read call and now I feel a shame because usually I just disable it.

First I wanted to create new policy to allow reading of that file for kernel, but later I’ve found that /efs partition contains other calibration files, for example /efs/gyro_cal_data, I’ve checked security context of that files and found that it differs from /efs/prox_cal, it was u:object_r:sensors_data_file:s0 but prox_cal was created with default for /efs partition context u:object_r:efs_file:s0, so I’ve changed context:

# chcon u:object_r:sensors_data_file:s0 /efs/prox_cal

After that kernel started to load calibration value every boot. Looks like instructions like one mentioned above works for everyone who modified factory shipped prox_cal file with right security context, but I haven’t /efs/prox_cal before and it was created with wrong context.
I hope that story may help someone.

Simple OpenVPN profile generator

Few month ago i learned that OpenVPN support profiles. Before that i generate config for every client, create keys and certs with easy-rsa, tar it’s all together and put on client. Now i can create profile that will contain all necessary keys, certs and config in one file, so i write simple script that generate .ovpn profile for new client.
Generated .ovpn profile can be imported from sd card in Android, via iTunes or email in iOS, or just type `openvpn your_new_profile.ovpn` at PC.
Prerequisites: configured easy-rsa (`pkitool clientname` must produce cert and key for client).
You must customize config part for your server, it is possible to fetch data from server config file, but i’m too lazy to modify script for it.
There is it:

#Dir where easy-rsa is placed
# Dir where profiles will be placed
REMOTE="your.server port"
if [ -z "$1" ]
        echo -n "Enter new client common name (CN): "
        read -e CN
if [ -z "$CN" ]
        then echo "You must provide a CN."
if [ -f $KEYS_DIR/$CN.crt ]
        echo "Certificate with the CN $CN already exists!"
        echo " $KEYS_DIR/$CN.crt"
source ./vars > /dev/null
./pkitool $CN
cat > $OVPN_PATH/${CN}.ovpn << END
dev tun
resolv-retry infinite
verb 1
proto tcp
remote $REMOTE
`cat $KEYS_DIR/ca.crt`
`sed -n '/BEGIN/,$p' $KEYS_DIR/${CN}.crt`
`cat $KEYS_DIR/${CN}.key`

Zoneminder jitter

After several years of torture with easycap i realize that it is time to change capture device. I found that other usb capture device that supported by linux cost to high, also i can not use PCI or full height PCI-e devices because of mATX form factor of my server.  Suddenly i found ImpactVCB 1381, it is what i wanted to found, it is supported by linux, PCI-e and has half height bracket.
Before i did not try it card i did not think, that it is can be so much difference in image quality between two cards. Unfortunately i do not have sample with  easycap, but you can trust me, difference is enough to throw easycap.
As always there is a fly in the ointment, zoneminder or haupage driver has bug and captured image sometimes jittering, it is looks like that:
Zoneminder jitter

I preferred to think, that it is bug in zoneminder, because i did not seen same issue when i captured video with mencoder.
Will hope it will be fixed in future releases.

You IP

Since the idiots in the Russian government passed a law similar to ‘SOPA’ i started to modify routing scheme at my home. Many times i used internet.ya.ru to determine my current outgoing IP address, but i wanted to use more minimalistic tool for this purpose. So i created my own tool with blackjack and hookers, there it is: https://ivanbayan.com/uip.php i using different routes for TLS and http traffic, so it is also available there  https://ivanbayan.com/uip.php.
This script produce simple image with you outgoing ip:

You ip

Addresses of TOR relays

Some time ago i wrote about how to block access from TOR network.
Few days ago i observed, that file with addresses of TOR relays (http://exitlist.torproject.org/exit-addresses) not available anymore, i did not found similar list, so i wrote my own script with blackjack and hookers. Output of this script not compatible with format of “exit-addresses”, and represents a simple list of ipv4 addresses of TOR relays.

Enjoy: https://ivanbayan.com/tor_exitnodes_v4.txt

Kali linux on LiveUSB with working persistent partition

Few days ago i wanted to make liveusb with kali linux (i had backtrack before). I used this guide to install kali, but i observed, that persistence partition does not work. There is partitions on my usb drive:
Kali - old partition table
When init script found persistent partition and tried to mount  their return error “mount: mounting /dev/sdaX on /root/lib/live/mount/persistence/sdaX failed: Device or resource busy”.
I think this happened because official guide suggest to write iso9660 image on usb drive, and init script think that it is cd drive and mount whole usb device, not a partition where iso placed. This i found in boot.log:

There you can see, that after kali boot, usb drive (sda) still mounted, and i can not mount second partition:
After that whole usb drive is busy.  I attached boot.log to this post with enabled debug, may be it will help someone to fix that.

I decided to make bootable usb disk instead of flashing iso on it. For doing that i used extlinux and original kali iso file.
First i create 2 partitions on usb drive, one for kali and second for persistent files:


Do not forget to set bootable flag on first partition and correct label for persistent paririon.
After that, install mbr from extlinux:

$ dd if=/usr/lib/extlinux/mbr.bin of=/dev/sda
0+1 records in
0+1 records out
440 bytes (440 B) copied, 0.00126658 s, 347 kB/s

Copy kali linux on first partition:

$ mkdir /mnt/sr0 /mnt/kali
$ mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/sr0/
mount: block device /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
$ mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/kali/
$ rsync -a /mnt/sr0/* /mnt/kali

Also i modify boot menu and add entry with persistence boot option at live.cfg:

label live-686-pae-persistence
menu label ^Live persistence (686-pae)
menu default
linux /live/vmlinuz
initrd /live/initrd.img
append boot=live noconfig=sudo username=root hostname=android-53f31a089339194f persistence

After that you need to rename isolinux.cfg to extlinux.conf and install extlinux:

$ cp /mnt/kali/isolinux/isolinux.cfg /mnt/kali/isolinux/extlinux.conf
$ extlinux --install /mnt/kali/isolinux/
/mnt/kali/isolinux/ is device /dev/sda1

Mount persistence partition and create config:

$ mkdir /mnt/persist
$ mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/persist/
$ echo "/ union" > /mnt/persist/persistence.conf

After that you can reboot and check, that persistent partition work.

Failsafe zoneminder with gluster and geo-replication.

Near year ago i configured zoneminder for monitoring my approach. But i got one problem, host that running zoneminder placed in same approach, so, if it will be stolen, it will be stolen with recordings. I spend a lot of time while choosing solution to organize replication on remote server. Most solution that i found work in “packet” mode, they start replication once in NN sec or after accumulating a certain number of events and usually use rsync. Rsync allow to reduce traffic usage, but increase time between event when new frame will be wrote on disk and event when frame will be wrote on remote side. In this situation every second counts, so I thought that solutions like “unison”, “inosync”, “csync2”, “lsyncd” not applicable.

I tried to use drbd, but get few problems. First – i do not have separate partition on host and can not shrink existing partitions to get new. I tried it with loopback devices, but drbd have deadlock bug when used with loopback. This solution work near two days after deadlock occurs, you can not read content of mounted fs or unmount it and only one solution to fix it that i found – reboot. Second problem – “split brain” situation, when master host restart. I did not spent time to found solution because all ready had first problem. May be it can be fixed with split-brain handlers script or with “heartbeat”. Drbd has great write speed in asynchronous mode and has small overhead, so, may be in another situation i will choose drbd.

Next what i tried was “glusterfs”, first i tried glusterfs 3.0. It was easily to configure it, and glusterfs was worked, but very slow. For good performance glusterfs need short latency between hosts. It useful for local networks but completely useless for hosts connected over slow links. Also glusterfs 3.0 did not have asynchronous write like in drbd. I temporarily thrown searching for solutions, but after a while in release notes for glusterfs 3.2 i found that gluster got “geo-replication“. First i think that this it what i need and before has understood (see conclusion) how it work i started to configure it.

If you will have troubles with configuration, installation  here you can find manual.
For Debian, first that you need is to add backports repository on host with zonemnider and on hosts where you planned to replicate data:

$ echo 'deb http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports squeeze-backports \
main contrib non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install glusterfs-server

After that you must open ports for gluster on all hosts where you want to use it:

$ iptables -A INPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 24007:24047 -j ACCEPT 
$ iptables -A INPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT 
$ iptables -A INPUT -m udp -p udp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT 
$ iptables -A INPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 38465:38467 -j ACCEPT

If you do not planned to use glusterfs over NFS (as i) you can skip last rule.
After ports will opened, gluster installed and service running you need to add gluster peers. For example you run zoneminder on host “zhost” and want to replicate it on host “rhost” (do not forget add hosts in /etc/hosts on both sides).  Run “gluster” and add peer (here and below gluster commands must to be executed on master host, i.e. on zhost):

$ gluster
gluster> peer probe rhost

Let’s check it:

gluster> peer status
Number of Peers: 1
Hostname: rhost
Uuid: 5e95020c-9550-4c8c-bc73-c9a120a9e96e
State: Peer in Cluster (Connected)

Next  necessary to create volumes on both hosts, do not forget to create directories where gluster will save their files. For examples you planned to use “/var/spool/glusterfs”:

gluster> volume create zoneminder transport tcp zhost:/var/spool/glusterfs
Creation of volume zoneminder has been successful. Please start the volume to access data.
gluster> volume create zoneminder_rep transport tcp rhost:/var/spool/glusterfs
Creation of volume zoneminder_rep has been successful. Please start the volume to access data.
gluster> volume start zoneminder
Starting volume zoneminder has been successfu
gluster> volume start zoneminder_rep
Starting volume zoneminder_rep has been successfu

After that you must configure geo-replication:

gluster&gt; volume geo-replication zoneminder gluster://rhost:zoneminder_rep start
Starting geo-replication session between zoneminder &amp; gluster://rhost:zoneminder_rep has been successful

And check that it is work:

gluster> volume geo-replication status
MASTER               SLAVE                                              STATUS    
zoneminder           gluster://rhost:zoneminder_rep           starting...
gluster> volume geo-replication status
MASTER               SLAVE                                              STATUS    
zoneminder           gluster://rhost:zoneminder_rep           OK

Also i made next configurations:

gluster> volume geo-replication zoneminder gluster://  config sync-jobs 4
geo-replication config updated successfully
gluster> volume geo-replication zoneminder gluster://  config timeout 120
geo-replication config updated successfully
gluster> volume set zoneminder nfs.disable on
Set volume successful
gluster> volume set zoneminder_rep nfs.disable on
Set volume successful
gluster> volume set zoneminder nfs.export-volumes off
Set volume successful
gluster> volume set zoneminder_rep nfs.export-volumes off
Set volume successful
gluster> volume set zoneminder performance.stat-prefetch off
Set volume successful
gluster> volume set zoneminder_rep performance.stat-prefetch off
Set volume successful

I disabled nfs because i did not planned to use gluster volumes over nfs, also i disabled prefetch because they produce next error on geo-ip modules:

E [stat-prefetch.c:695:sp_remove_caches_from_all_fds_opened] (-->/usr/lib/glusterfs/3.2.7/xlator/mount/fuse.so(fuse_setattr_resume+0x1b0) [0x7f2006ba8ed0] (-->/usr/lib/glusterfs/3.2.7/xlator/debug/io-stats.so
(io_stats_setattr+0x14f) [0x7f200467db8f] (-->/usr/lib/glusterfs/3.2.7/xlator/performance/stat-prefetch.so(sp_setattr+0x7c) [0x7f200489c99c]))) 0-zoneminder_rep-stat-prefetch: invalid argument: inode

In conclusion i must to say, that it is not a solution that i looked for, because as it turned out  gluster use rsync for geo-replication. Pros of this solution: it is work and easy to setup. Cons it is use rsync. Also i expected that debian squeeze can not mount gluster volumes in boot sequence, i tried to modify /etc/init.d/mountnfs.sh but without result, so i just add mount command in zoneminder start script.

echo ‘cyclope:zoneminder      /var/cache/zoneminder   glusterfs       defaults        0       0’ >> /etc/fstab
And add ‘mount /var/cache/zoneminder’ in start section of /etc/init.d/zoneminder

Do not forget to stope zoneminder and copy content of /var/cache/zoneminder on new partition before using it.